colonial education in png pdf

These people live in scattered villages and hamlets, often in inaccessible terrain. And finally, while independence movements in Papua and New Guinea were not as extensive, nor as passionate, as in a number of other countries such as India and Malaya, there were beginning to surface isolated cases of indigenous demands for self-government. However, these analyses do not explain why the largely western notion of development continues to play an important role in policy discourses in the Third World. The surplus products and capital intensified the efforts of the colonial powers to establish new markets outside Europe, that is, for trade to extend to other parts of the world, in particular the African, Asian and Pacific regions. It is important to recognise that, whatever their wider interests, many European colonisers saw colonialism in benevolent terms. As Spybey (1992:23-24) argues: The fundamental principle of dependency theory is that the Third World is not, as modernization theory suggests, an area ripe for development along a pathway taken previously by European countries, but instead is a subsidiary part of the Western capitalist system and has been so since the spread of colonialism. They argued that the people of Papua and New Guinea were "not ready" for self-government, and that Australian interests were best served by greater economic investment in the territory (Biskup, Jinks & Nelson, 1968:128). In the next chapter, I examine the concept of devolution as it relates to the ways education is administered in Papua New Guinea. As already pointed out, Papua New Guinea as a nation was historically constructed to serve a range of colonial interests. In the ninetieth century, there were a wide variety of reasons given for colonial activity. Advancement can be achieved only by providing facilities for better health, better education and for a greater participation by the natives in the wealth of their country and eventually in its government. They became dependent on the state and its bureaucracy to provide both the directions of education, as well as the resources needed to deliver it to their young. (Cited in Larrain, 1989:176). With the acquisition of land came the missionaries, planters and settlers, traders and administrators who became heavily involved in the "development" of PNG (Rowley, 1985), supposedly for the benefit of the indigenous people. To disseminate otherwise or republish, requries written permission. Dorney (1990:53) observes: Despite its inherited Westminster-style parliament and democratic institutions, PNG's political system has rapidly evolved its mores and distinctive practices ... To understand the peculiarities of PNG's post-independence politics, it is important to know how the politicians see their role. Consequently, a pattern of dependency persists; as does the perception that there are two classes of public servants, not least because the conditions of employment for expatriates are much more attractive. In the 1900s, these activities grew in scale and in profits. Despite energetic efforts towards the nationalisation of the civil service since self government, maintaining this bureaucratic structure involves the continued employment at higher level of large numbers of highly-paid expatriates. Another response to the Foot Report was the establishment in 1965 of a Committee of ten advisers from the World Bank to recommend ways to improve the Territory's economy and its industries (Downs, 1980). The spread of Christianity and the conflict between its various sects during this period, were also factors in rapid colonial expansion. However, these tentative moves towards self-government were not entirely unopposed. What people are saying - Write a review. Larrain (1991) has suggested that Marx shared the view that it was justifiable historically for the "backward" nations to be "liberated" through industrialisation. That is, they could not separate Christ's teachings from their own culture. ANGAU was a creation of an Australian Labor Party (ALP) Government, whose Minister for External Affairs, Mr Ward, sought to re-orient Australian policies in Papua and New Guinea away from economic exploitation to a focus on the welfare of the indigenous people. Most of the ridges rise to the average height of 3,000 metres. But there was little in the way of consultation with the villagers and local communities who had come to accept centralised decision-making as natural and inevitable. Papua New Guinea has been subject to many anthropological studies (for example Mead, 1931; Malinowski 1932; Mead, 1970; Strathern, 1971). During the colonial period, a centralised public service had been created in PNG to make a range of decisions about the infrastructure needs of the country (Turner, 1991). Even with the program of indigenisation, the public service experienced a shortage of well-trained qualified indigenous officers (Turner, 1992). The decline of feudalism and the rise of capitalism made it necessary to exploit the natural resources of the regions outside Europe. However, after independence, key elements of the Constable system have been retained, creating conditions for considerable conflict between villagers on the one hand, and the new indigenous political and administrative elite arising out of the Constable system, on the other. PNG is a land of many contrasts--many languages, many tribes and many cultures. The PNG Public Service recruits officers not only on the basis of bureaucratic performance and qualifications but also on a commitment to tribal values. The Department of Education reformed the curriculum (Papua New Guinea Department of Education, 2002), based on the Matane Report, entitled ‘A Philosophy of Education’ (Papua New Guinea Department of Education, 2003, p. 4). This signalled a policy shift in Australia's relationship with PNG. In colonised countries, on the other hand, there is a varying degree of complicity and resistance to colonial advances. These traditions are often referred to as "the PNG ways" (Narokobi, 1983), perhaps overlooking the cultural diversity that exists in the country. The PNG bureaucracy thus has the potential both to promote as well as to constrain democratic reforms. The indigenous people were thus brought into a new economic system which required them to earn cash in order to receive material goods. The missionaries also saw themselves as having a major responsibility to develop among indigenous people, those values that contributed to the development of Papua New Guinea as a "civilised" nation. The actual practices differ from theory. This was a hierarchical system designed to maintain a tight control over indigenous institutions. This concept laid the foundation of a framework of economic policies that the colonial government developed (Fisk, 1966). To begin with, they make the issue of what counts as colonialism a great deal more complex. Yet education was always important in PNG. Using modernisation theory, Alavi and Shanin (1982) suggest that Third World countries are thus referred to as "backward nations", while colonies remaining under Europeans are "emergent nations" upon independence and "developing countries" thereafter (cited in Spybey, 1992:21). Indeed, the categories "the colonisers" and "the colonised" are not homogenous, and should not be treated in terms that are totalising. The missionaries of different Christian denominations went out to convert the heathens, believing it to be their moral and Christian duty to bring light to their darker brethren so that these "primitives" could become civilised. This study was conducted in four primary schools of Buma Yong area of Lae district of Morobe Province, PNG. The North Solomon, a province of PNG, shares the boundary with the Solomon Islands. In this speech, he argued that: Emphasis has been given to responsible development. The cash economy capacity of the country is very limited. The differences in views are due not only to different ideological positions adopted by the analysts, but also to their different theoretical interests; such a range of differences often means that different aspects of the problem are studied. The main task of the Councils were to involve the people in the development and improvement of their villages. It should be noted, however, that this decision-making structure was largely advisory and that the Administrator and the public service retained a great deal of de facto power. Not surprisingly, this government view is shared by the World Bank Report (1988:xi) which has argued: PNG faces major development challenges in the years ahead. Recognising the ineffectiveness of the Fijian system, and fearing the designs that the Germans had on Papua, the British Government invited Sir Samuel Griffith, the then Queensland Premier, to devise a new administrative system for Papua. Throughout PNG, the climate consists of two seasons only: wet and dry, mostly influenced by strong monsoon winds. It cannot be denied, however, that between the end of the Second World War in 1945 and 1973, when the Territory was granted a measure of self-government, Australia did much to develop Papua and New Guinea; but what remains an open question is Australia's motivations and for whom its investment was productive. For the first time also he had raised the prospect of self-determination. The PNG government, together with foreign companies, is, for example, mining copper in Ok Tedi (Jackson, 1982), and gold in Pogera; and is allowing the trees to be cut down for timber in Madang, Manus, West New Britain, Central and Kerema (Deklin, 1992:127). It is not uncommon for nationals to leave paid unemployment in urban areas to return to the village in order to ensure that their title to land does not lapse. Interestingly, in naming localities, colonial adventurers overlooked the indigenous names of tribes, mountains, bays, straits and islands and so on (Biskup, Jinks & Nelson, 1968:20), but chose instead to call places after themselves, their friends, queens or kings, or towns and cities in their countries of origin. The background to PNG is presented around three key arguments. Balandier (1960:1) maintains that: Colonialism is the establishment and maintenance, for extended time, of rule over an alien people that is separate from and subordinate to the ruling power. In 1919, Australia, under an Agreement of the League of Nations, assumed responsibilities for the administration of New Guinea. This speculative philosophy suggests a metaphysical view of development over which human beings would appear to have little control. Ideas and concepts do not occur in a vacuum, but are the products of the social, cultural and historical events surrounding them (Fagerlind and Saha, 1989:5). 0 Reviews. However, in 1901, Britain sought to transfer the responsibility of governing Papua to Australia. h�b```f``�c`a`�sc`@ &�(G#�#��`d`�ѹ�!��f��������e�4,�P޼q֜j����|-u&��7ug-۔�K���KS����9s�̞=gN!14 nh`� B"�h b�Tt��@�� t�,c2cc,�3�c.����錳/�U�0H���@1݆�8�A�� D��@� vDO� endstream endobj 146 0 obj <> endobj 147 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 148 0 obj <>stream Thirdly, it is maintained that as a Third World country, PNG lacks the resources to develop in an autonomous fashion, and has to rely on aid and advice from the international community, most notably from Australia. Colonialism in PNG did not operate only through the work of the expatriate administrators and traders, but also through the work of the missionaries who went out to PNG to change the social outlook of the indigenous people. Over the past two centuries, economic colonialism has meant a deliberate replacement of the traditional-subsistence economy by a modern capitalist economy which aims to restructure the relationships of self-reliance into one of resource dependency on the colonial powers and its financial institutions. Religious and moral education is therefore an essential part of every child or young person’s educational experience. Its economic wealth is now judged against an international yardstick, and the notion of a Third World country is now applied to it; as is the notion of the need for its economic development. The developing countries thus confront a major contradiction in relation to the aid and loan agencies. Exactly what these "ways" are is an issue that is both complex and confusing. (cited in Dove et al., 1974:182). For example, expatriates such as Bruce Jeffcot, Karl Stack, Tim Neville, Barry Holloway and Peter Barker have all held ministries in post-independence PNG governments. A dependency relationship had been created: the villagers had felt that the central administration would provide the goods and services they needed. Griffin (1978:xi) refers to these motives as: Concern, Careerism, Cupidity, or Didacticism, Dominion, Dividends ... Concern and Didactism allow that not all purveyors of Light were evangelists and that there were irreligious humanitarians who wanted to disperse darkness. The traders sought to "develop" timber, copra and beche-de-mer industries. It is in Western culture that the terms of the debate have been defined and by the same token it is Western culture that provides the model for development however it is conceptualised. In a sense, they assumed, without any doubt, the necessity of European contribution to the development of PNG's political, economic, administrative and educational policies. Given this demographic and historical complexity, the political cohesion of PNG as a nation-state remains an important issue in the country; as does the issue of the nature of the relationship between the State and its citizens. Britain's Colonial Administrations and Developments, 1861-1960: An Analysis of Britain's Colonial Administrations and Developments in Nigeria ... finance, defense, foreign pol icy and education plus the practical experience and influence of the political leaders during the period of internal self-government in which the leaders acted as premiers. There were also changes to the administration with Canberra assuming direct control of the Territory. Parliamentarians in PNG regard themselves more as leaders of their people than as their representatives. But arguably economic interests were more important. In 1952, there were about 1,200 Australian public servants in the Territory, most of whom were appointed while still in their early twenties. It has already created pressures on the political integrity of PNG, because the New Guinea Islands (Manus, East New Britain, West New Britain, and New Ireland) are largely sympathetic to the cause of the North Solomon Province and are also threatening to secede from the rest of PNG. Although historians may not share the same views about the motives for this rapid colonial expansion in the ninetieth century, there is a general agreement that the colonial powers were in search of the three "Gs": namely, Gold, God and Glory. They had to ensure that there was sufficient provision for the educational needs of pupils in their geographical area. Colonialism has thus mediated in defining not only internal relationships between tribes but also PNG's external relationships with its neighbours. So, from the point of view of this work, the key issues are: why and how have the notions of development become institutionalised in post-independence PNG? Also, they often set one tribe against another in order to keep disputes going so that they could retain their own influence and control. The decision to dump up to 3,000 refugees at a time on PNG’s Manus Island tells us as much about Austraia’s neo-colonial relationship with its former dependency as it does about its racist disdain for the rights of vulnerable asylum seekers. When Nandy speaks of the colonisation of the mind, he suggests an ideological framework in which the colonised accepts and assumes as natural the values of the coloniser. After the Second World War, there was a shift in policy emphasis away from subsistence economy to cash (urban) economy. Indeed, it is misleading to suggest that these traditional cultures are somehow unchanged by the colonial presence in the country. In political terms, colonialism is often assumed to be a temporary phenomenon. Some still serve as elected politicians in the PNG parliament. This mode of thinking exists in the minds of both the coloniser and the colonised, and is expressed through their cultural experiences and practices. We must seriously consider the possibility that the multilateral development banks have no evident role in advancing the kind of development we are discussing here and that we should be working to see them dismantled or at least reduced to a small fraction of their current size and influence. After touring many parts of the Territory, and consulting different sections of the community, officials of the World Bank emphasised three policy areas. The extent to which PNG is in a position to construct its own definition of development is an open question, and dictates the parameters of PNG politics. In the view of colonisers, there are no alternative traditions superior to their own. In particular, the commission was asked to look at the ways of introducing universal primary education and a more comprehensive system of secondary and tertiary education, including technical education, teacher training and medical, agricultural, and administrative education. About 70% of land in PNG is classified as unsuitable for agricultural development because of topography, drainage or infertility. 1 Religious education has a statutory position in Scottish education, relating to schools but not to pre-school centres. Axline (1988: 72) argues: These systems were highly centralised, with most of the power located either in Port Moresby or in the Australian Department of External Territories in Canberra (Ballard, 1981). His definition of development thus includes factors that are not only economic, but significantly also the non-economic, such as education, health and cultural issues (Fagerlind and Saha, 1989:29). But, in retrospect, it is clear that they had prepared the conditions for the Europeans to later settle in the country and exploit its natural resources for their own economic ends. As trading activities became intensified, the indigenous people further accumulated Western goods as substitutes for their own. They have become alienated from their land, and their people; and yet many of them have not been absorbed into the new society of the elites. The end of the world is predetermined and would represent a divine intervention to halt human sin. Third World countries continue to export raw materials and sell them at cheap prices to the industrialised countries. Even in the case of alienated land, there are significant obstacles to the transfer of title. More than forty years ago, Balandier (1951:75) described this feature of colonial situations as the. How is it used in educational discourses in PNG? And when nation-states acquire power and prestige, they become recognised as civilisations. They have become misfits. Stage 4 (the drive to maturity) when 10 to 20 per cent of the national income is invested, the use of consumer technology becomes widespread and an impression is made on the capitalist world economy. A continuing high level of financial assistance from the Australian government encourages this situation and has created quite dramatic opportunities for promotion for young Papua New Guinean graduates. O'Collins 1993:(67-68) contends: Aid in the form of direct grants, training programmes, visiting experts, and consultants has many faces and many effects on those who are the recipients. In the Island Region, which consists of small atoll islands separated by vast open seas, travel and communication are also difficult. And while such a synthesis has proved to be difficult to conceptualise and implement, the rhetoric surrounding the need for such a synthesis persists. Balandier sees colonialism as a political phenomenon. However, traditional fishing is increasingly compromised by large capital-venture activities. Development can thus be judged in a variety of ways using economic indicators such as wealth, as well as social and cultural indicators such as spiritual values, communal values and social harmony. The children who have become educated in western style education have mostly moved away from the communities to which they once belonged. The Aims and Objectives of Missionary Education in the Colonial Era in India 123 emphasized more efforts putting on spreading Christianity and de secularized Government schools. Only one or two out of those I have talked to considered themselves as Papua New Guineans. A further 35 percent are engaged in the informal commercial activities producing cash crops, whilst the other 51 percent are either dependent on the subsistence economy or are unemployed (PNG Education Sector Review, 1991:1). domination of an alien minority, asserting racial and cultural superiority, over a materially inferior native majority; contact between a machine-oriented civilisation with Christian origins, a powerful economy, and a rapid rhythm of life, and a non-Christian civilisation that lacks machines and is marked by a backward economy and a slow rhythm of life; and the imposition of the first civilisation upon the second based in a linear concept of progress. In 1962, a United Nations Visiting Team toured PNG and made an assessment on the status of the political, economic and educational development of the Territory. We want investors with reputations as good neighbours, fair employers and development benefactors. It also proposed university education, offered through either Australian universities or through the development of a local university. Henningham and May (1992:1) further maintain: Hundreds have been killed, property worth millions of dollars has been destroyed or damaged, production at one of the world's largest copper and gold mines has ceased, and the political stability and integrity of the largest of the Pacific Island countries has been challenged. The British Government, the Proclamation suggested, would protect the natives and their land from exploitation by the unscrupulous Europeans, mostly the traders, settlers and planters. The PNG people have a special relationship with their land and, particularly in the past, land rights were the only security system. The colonisers had, on the other hand, regarded this traditional mode of socialisation of the young insufficient for the social, political and economic needs of a new nation-state. The tultuls were messengers, and acted as assistants to the luluais. Moreover, these contexts are not homogeneous. The coastal areas are known for their vast areas of swamps. The colonial government sought to form different political groupings and establish indigenous leadership in order to assert its administrative authority. Papua had a system of multiple chiefs in the same tribe, who governed in a collaborative fashion. Development is therefore that process which characterises the growth of a nation-state within this historical cycle. They had little administrative experience and were mostly seeking adventure. Through the existing education system, India has pro­duced in the last five decades number of scientists, professionals and technocrats who have excelled in their fields and made a mark at the na­tional and international levels. Most people from Africa, Asia and South America, live in the aftermath of colonialism, while others, for example the Indigenous Peoples of North America, Australia, New Zealand, Latin and Central America still live in colonial bondage. His historicist world-view led him to believe that capitalism was a necessary stage in the eventual enlightenment of people everywhere. Also, discussions of colonialism do not always clearly distinguish between different aspects of the problem: for example, the conditions which led to the emergence of colonialism; the motives for colonial adventure; the approaches and processes of its realisation; and the effects of colonialism in terms of its benefits and problems, both for the colonisers and the colonised (Fieldhouse, 1981). These sub-systems are linked and operate harmoniously as part of the System. The four lines follow no clear geographic boundaries. Australia was obliged to promote this principle. These boundary skirmishes have implications for PNG's political stability (Waiko, 1993:198-200). On record are numerous instances of resistance and conflict over rights, ownership, usage and boundaries (Nelson, 1968:52). It suggests PNG should achieve development through the use of the distinctively indigenous forms of social, political and economic organisation. Their financial needs encourage the Third World countries to seek foreign investment in terms of capital, manpower and technology from international financial institutions such as the World Bank, International Monetary Funds, Asian Development Bank, European Economic Commission and so on. Because of the rate of change, education itself--its goals, content and fonm--nad to change in order to be effective in initiating people It suggested that more Europeans might need to be recruited both in public and private sectors to quicken the pace of development. civilization, including education (Whitehead, 2005). h�. Apart from the Dutch, the English, French and Germans were also involved in the exploration of the new land (Griffin, 1978; Reed, 1983). Land and the plants and animals it supports occupy the central position in the lives of the indigenous in the South Pacific and is intimately linked to their social, cultural and spiritual well-being. Physical Education in Papua New Guinea (PNG) schools did not appear to be widespread nor progressing effectively. There is a dual salary scale for expatriates and indigenous public servants, and the expatriates are also given other privileges such as free education for their children, return airfares every two years, free rent or subsidised accommodation, and gratuities after the completion of their contracts. The traditional landowners, however, dispute these claims, and are asking for the return of their land or are demanding massive monetary compensation. The PNG Government fears the creation of a dependency relationship on foreigners because they have the power of the purse: for after all, if they can control the economy of the country, it is possible they can also control the government and influence the formulation and implementation of key policy decisions. I cannot emphasise too strongly, therefore, that we welcome only those companies that are prepared to make a major commitment to the development aims of this country. Ultimately, economic growth is not a goal in itself. Under the colonial rule, the notion of education in PNG had been transformed from a traditional into a "western" one. However, the challenge remains, and serves to define the broader political context within which the policy of devolution has been implemented. The Australian Government had to heed these factors, and in 1949, the Australian Parliament passed the Amalgamation Act which made the unification of the territories of Papua and New Guinea possible (Parker, 1966a:249). Within the Government, there was even a suggestion that Papua and New Guinea might become the seventh state of Australia (Biskup, Jinks & Nelson, 1968:135), though this would have contradicted the "White Australia" policy. The main focus of the study is education policy issued from “above”: that is, it is largely an examination of the contribution of Canberra officials and politicians towards education for future PNG autonomy and/or independence. An arbitrary fashion constructed through the use of the 120 it surveyed ( World Bank classifies PNG a. Guineans now identify themselves with this New system, Papua 's status changed from being a Protectorate a! Al., 1974:182 ) factions in the same education systems that oppressed us to educate free. 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